top of page

Gruppe

Öffentlich·13 Mitglieder

Metal Forming Handbook of Kurt Lange: A Comprehensive Guide for Engineers and Practitioners



Metal Forming Handbook by Kurt Lange: A Comprehensive Guide for Engineers and Practitioners




Metal forming is one of the most important manufacturing processes in the modern industry. It involves shaping metal parts by applying various forces such as pressure, tension, compression or shear. Metal forming can produce complex shapes with high accuracy and efficiency, while reducing material waste and energy consumption.




metal forming handbook of kurt lange free download.zip



However, metal forming is also a challenging and multidisciplinary field that requires a deep understanding of the physical phenomena, material behavior, process parameters and tool design involved. To master the art and science of metal forming, one needs a reliable and comprehensive source of information that covers both the fundamentals and the applications of this fascinating technology.


That's where the Metal Forming Handbook by Kurt Lange comes in. This book is a classic reference in the field of metal forming, written by one of the most respected experts in the world. Kurt Lange was a professor of mechanical engineering at the University of Stuttgart in Germany, where he founded and led the Institute for Metal Forming Technology. He was also a pioneer in developing new methods and machines for metal forming, such as hydrostatic extrusion, radial forging and vibration-assisted forming.


The Metal Forming Handbook is a comprehensive guide that covers all aspects of metal forming, from the fundamentals to the practical applications. It is divided into six parts, each focusing on a different category of metal forming processes. The book also includes appendices with useful data on steel and nonferrous metals, as well as an index for easy reference. The book is written in a clear and concise style, with numerous illustrations, tables and examples to aid the reader's comprehension.


In this article, we will give you an overview of each part of the Metal Forming Handbook, highlighting its main features and benefits. We will also provide you with some FAQs that will help you get started with this valuable resource.


Introduction




The introduction gives a brief overview of metal forming as a manufacturing process. It explains what metal forming is, why it is important for modern industry and society, and how it differs from other processes such as machining or casting. It also introduces Kurt Lange as the author of the handbook and his contribution to the field of metal forming.


The introduction also gives a summary of the contents of the handbook, outlining its structure and scope. It explains how the book is organized into six parts: fundamentals of metal forming; bulk metal forming; sheet metal forming; blanking, piercing and slug production; metal forming under special conditions; and tools for metal forming. It also mentions the appendices that contain useful data on steel and nonferrous metals.


The introduction ends with a note on the units and symbols used in the book, as well as the references and sources consulted by the author. It also acknowledges the contributions of the co-authors, reviewers and editors who helped to produce the handbook.


Fundamentals of Metal Forming




The first part of the handbook covers the basic principles and concepts of metal forming. It consists of nine chapters that deal with the following topics:



  • Metallurgy: This chapter explains the structure and properties of metals, such as crystal structure, phase diagrams, solidification, diffusion, alloying, heat treatment and microstructure. It also discusses the effects of deformation and temperature on the mechanical behavior of metals, such as stress-strain curves, flow curves, work hardening, recovery, recrystallization and grain growth.



  • Tribology: This chapter deals with the friction, lubrication and wear phenomena that occur during metal forming. It describes the different types of friction, such as sliding, rolling and mixed friction, and how they affect the forming forces and energy consumption. It also explains the principles and methods of lubrication, such as boundary, hydrodynamic and hydrostatic lubrication, and how they influence the surface quality and tool life. It also covers the mechanisms and factors of wear, such as adhesive, abrasive and corrosive wear, and how they can be reduced or prevented.



  • Fundamentals of Technical Plasticity Theory: This chapter introduces the mathematical framework for analyzing metal forming processes. It defines the basic concepts and quantities of plasticity theory, such as stress, strain, strain rate, deformation gradient, velocity gradient, flow rule, yield criterion and hardening law. It also derives the equations of equilibrium, compatibility and constitutive relations for various cases of deformation, such as plane stress, plane strain and axisymmetric deformation. It also presents some examples of analytical solutions for simple metal forming problems.



  • Material Properties and Process Data Determination: This chapter explains how to measure and determine the material properties and process data that are needed for metal forming analysis and design. It describes the different types of testing methods, such as tensile testing, compression testing, torsion testing and bulge testing, and how to obtain the flow curves, strain hardening exponents, strain rate sensitivities and other parameters from them. It also discusses how to measure the friction coefficients, lubricant viscosities and tool temperatures during metal forming.



  • Machine Tools for Metal Forming: This chapter gives an overview of the different types of machine tools that are used for metal forming. It classifies them according to their principle of operation, such as mechanical presses, hydraulic presses, screw presses, hammers and rolling mills. It also describes their main components, such as frames, slides, rams, dies and guides. It also discusses their advantages and disadvantages, as well as their selection criteria.



Dimensional Accuracy and Surface Quality




This chapter deals with the quality aspects of metal forming products. It defines the terms and concepts related to dimensional accuracy and surface quality, such as tolerances, deviations, errors, roughness, waviness and defects. It also explains the factors that affect the quality of metal forming products, such as material properties, process parameters, tool geometry and wear, machine stiffness and accuracy, and environmental conditions.


This chapter also describes the methods and techniques for measuring and evaluating the dimensional accuracy and surface quality of metal forming products. It covers the instruments and devices that are used for dimensional measurement, such as calipers, micrometers, gauges, coordinate measuring machines and optical systems. It also covers the instruments and devices that are used for surface measurement, such as profilometers, interferometers, microscopes and scanners. It also discusses the standards and specifications that are used for defining and reporting the quality of metal forming products.


Bulk Metal Forming




The second part of the handbook covers the processes that involve large deformations of metal parts with relatively small changes in cross-sectional area. It consists of seven chapters that deal with the following topics:



  • Upsetting: This chapter explains the process of upsetting, which involves compressing a metal part between two flat or shaped dies. It describes the types and applications of upsetting, such as solid upsetting, hollow upsetting, heading, coining and sizing. It also discusses the process parameters and variables, such as force, energy, temperature, speed and friction. It also analyzes the deformation and stress distribution in upsetting processes.



  • Forging: This chapter explains the process of forging, which involves shaping a metal part by applying localized compressive forces with a hammer or a press. It describes the types and applications of forging, such as open-die forging, closed-die forging, impression-die forging and flashless forging. It also discusses the process parameters and variables, such as force, energy, temperature, speed and lubrication. It also analyzes the deformation and stress distribution in forging processes.



  • Rolling: This chapter explains the process of rolling, which involves reducing the thickness or changing the cross-section of a metal part by passing it between two rotating rolls. It describes the types and applications of rolling, such as flat rolling, shape rolling, ring rolling and thread rolling. It also discusses the process parameters and variables, such as force, torque, power, temperature, speed and friction. It also analyzes the deformation and stress distribution in rolling processes.



  • Fundamentals of Extrusion and Drawing: This chapter introduces the processes of extrusion and drawing, which involve pushing or pulling a metal part through a die with a smaller cross-section. It defines the basic concepts and quantities of extrusion and drawing, such as extrusion ratio, reduction ratio, ram pressure, die angle and drawing force. It also discusses the effects of temperature, speed and lubrication on extrusion and drawing processes.



  • Drawing and Ironing: This chapter explains the process of drawing, which involves pulling a metal part through a die with a smaller cross-section. It describes the types and applications of drawing, such as wire drawing, bar drawing, tube drawing and deep drawing. It also discusses the process parameters and variables, such as drawing force, drawing speed, die angle and lubrication. It also analyzes the deformation and stress distribution in drawing processes. This chapter also explains the process of ironing, which involves further reducing the wall thickness of a drawn part by passing it through an ironing ring. It describes the types and applications of ironing, such as can making and cartridge case forming. It also discusses the process parameters and variables, such as ironing force, ironing speed, ironing ratio and lubrication. It also analyzes the deformation and stress distribution in ironing processes.



  • Cold and Warm Extrusion: This chapter explains the process of cold and warm extrusion, which involve pushing a metal part through a die with a smaller cross-section at room or elevated temperatures. It describes the types and applications of cold and warm extrusion, such as forward extrusion, backward extrusion, lateral extrusion and combined extrusion. It also discusses the process parameters and variables, such as extrusion force, extrusion speed, extrusion ratio and lubrication. It also analyzes the deformation and stress distribution in cold and warm extrusion processes.



  • Hot Extrusion: This chapter explains the process of hot extrusion, which involves pushing a metal part through a die with a smaller cross-section at high temperatures. It describes the types and applications of hot extrusion, such as direct extrusion, indirect extrusion, hydrostatic extrusion and impact extrusion. It also discusses the process parameters and variables, such as extrusion force, extrusion speed, extrusion temperature and lubrication. It also analyzes the deformation and stress distribution in hot extrusion processes.



  • Indentation Processes: This chapter explains the process of indentation, which involves pressing a metal part with a shaped tool to produce a local deformation or impression. It describes the types and applications of indentation processes, such as embossing, coining, flanging and swaging. It also discusses the process parameters and variables, such as indentation force, indentation speed, indentation depth and lubrication. It also analyzes the deformation and stress distribution in indentation processes.



Sheet Metal Forming




The third part of the handbook covers the processes that involve large deformations of metal parts with relatively large changes in cross-sectional area. It consists of six chapters that deal with the following topics:



  • Sheet Metal Properties and Testing Methods: This chapter explains the properties and characteristics of sheet metals that are relevant for sheet metal forming. It describes the mechanical properties of sheet metals, such as yield strength, tensile strength, elongation, strain hardening exponent and strain rate sensitivity. It also describes the anisotropic properties of sheet metals, such as normal anisotropy ratio, planar anisotropy ratio and earing tendency. It also explains the methods for testing sheet metal properties, such as tensile testing, cupping testing, limiting dome height testing and forming limit diagram testing.



  • Bending: This chapter explains the process of bending, which involves changing the curvature of a metal part by applying bending moments or forces. It describes the types and applications of bending, such as V-bending, U-bending, edge bending, roll bending and rotary bending. It also discusses the process parameters and variables, such as bending force, bending moment, bending radius and springback. It also analyzes the deformation and stress distribution in bending processes.



  • Deep Drawing: This chapter explains the process of deep drawing, which involves forming a metal part with a cylindrical or box-shaped cavity by applying a punch force. It describes the types and applications of deep drawing, such as cylindrical deep drawing, rectangular deep drawing, conical deep drawing and multi-stage deep drawing. It also discusses the process parameters and variables, such as blank holder force, punch force, draw ratio and blank shape. It also analyzes the deformation and stress distribution in deep drawing processes.



  • Metal Spinning: This chapter explains the process of metal spinning, which involves forming a metal part with a rotational symmetry by applying a roller force. It describes the types and applications of metal spinning, such as conventional spinning, shear spinning, tube spinning and flow forming. It also discusses the process parameters and variables, such as roller force, roller speed, feed rate and mandrel shape. It also analyzes the deformation and stress distribution in metal spinning processes.



  • Collar Drawing: This chapter explains the process of collar drawing, which involves forming a metal part with a flange or collar by applying a punch force. It describes the types and applications of collar drawing, such as flanging, beading, curling and hemming. It also discusses the process parameters and variables, such as punch force, punch speed, die clearance and flange angle. It also analyzes the deformation and stress distribution in collar drawing processes.



  • Stretch Forming: This chapter explains the process of stretch forming, which involves forming a metal part with a large curvature by applying a tensile force. It describes the types and applications of stretch forming, such as stretch wrap forming, stretch bend forming and stretch draw forming. It also discusses the process parameters and variables, such as tensile force, tensile speed, bend radius and springback. It also analyzes the deformation and stress distribution in stretch forming processes.



Blanking, Piercing and Slug Production




The fourth part of the handbook covers the processes that involve cutting or separating metal parts from sheet metals by applying shearing forces. It consists of three chapters that deal with the following topics:



  • Blanking and Piercing Processes: This chapter explains the processes of blanking and piercing, which involve cutting out metal parts or holes from sheet metals by applying punch and die forces. It describes the types and applications of blanking and piercing processes, such as conventional blanking, fine blanking, piercing with a pointed punch, piece-and-extrude operations, slotting, countersinking and cutting and lancing of tabs. It also discusses the process parameters and variables, such as blanking force, blanking speed, die clearance and burr height. It also analyzes the deformation and stress distribution in blanking and piercing processes.



  • Blanking and Piercing Tools: This chapter explains the design and manufacture of tools for blanking and piercing processes. It describes the components and functions of blanking and piercing tools, such as punches, dies, strippers, guides and springs. It also discusses the materials and heat treatments for blanking and piercing tools, such as tool steels, carbides and coatings. It also covers the methods and techniques for tool fabrication, such as machining, grinding, wire cutting and EDM.



  • Slug Production: This chapter explains the process of slug production, which involves producing metal parts from the slugs that are generated by blanking or piercing processes. It describes the types and applications of slug production processes, such as cold forming, warm forming and hot forming. It also discusses the process parameters and variables, such as forming force, forming speed, forming temperature and lubrication. It also analyzes the deformation and stress distribution in slug production processes.



Metal Forming Under Special Conditions




The fifth part of the handbook covers the processes that involve forming metal parts under special conditions that differ from conventional metal forming processes. It consists of three chapters that deal with the following topics:



  • Metal Forming Under Hydrostatic Pressure: This chapter explains the process of metal forming under hydrostatic pressure, which involves applying a high fluid pressure to a metal part to reduce its flow stress and increase its formability. It describes the types and applications of metal forming under hydrostatic pressure, such as hydrostatic extrusion, hydrostatic deep drawing and hydroforming. It also discusses the process parameters and variables, such as fluid pressure, fluid type, fluid temperature and fluid flow rate. It also analyzes the deformation and stress distribution in metal forming under hydrostatic pressure processes.



  • Metal Forming With Superimposed Vibrations: This chapter explains the process of metal forming with superimposed vibrations, which involves applying a periodic oscillation to a metal part or a tool to reduce its flow stress and increase its formability. It describes the types and applications of metal forming with superimposed vibrations, such as vibration-assisted forging, rolling, extrusion, drawing and bending. It also discusses the process parameters and variables, such as vibration frequency, amplitude, direction and phase. It also analyzes the deformation and stress distribution in metal forming with superimposed vibrations processes.



Metal Forming by Exploiting Special Material Properties: This chapter explains the process of metal forming by exploiting special material properties, which involve using the specific characteristics of certain metals or alloys to enhance their formability or functionality. It describes the types and applications of metal forming by exploiting special material properties, such as superplastic forming, magnetic pulse forming, explosiv


Info

Willkommen in der Gruppe! Hier können Sie sich mit anderen M...
bottom of page